Welcome to the website of Inoue & Associates

Introductory Statement

Inoue & Associates (located within 1 minute walk from the Japan Patent Office) is an intellectual property (IP) firm having more than 35 years of experience in international IP business.

We are a modest-sized IP firm composed of members each having profound knowledge about the legal aspect of IP and the technologies involved therein as well as excellent skill in actual IP practice, such that high quality services can be offered constantly at a reasonable price.  Each one of our staff members is so trained as to be able to always provide high quality IP-related services including production of documents having a clear and logical construction whether they are in English or Japanese and irrespective of urgency or technical difficulties involved in particular cases.

Over the years, we have built up a solid reputation for our ability to efficiently acquire and protect IP rights in Japan.

We are confident that we can provide higher quality IP services than any other IP firms in Japan.

Features of Inoue & Associates

For acquiring and protecting patent rights, everything starts from the claims and specification of a patent application or a granted patent.  Whether a patent application can be granted with a desired protective scope or a granted patent can survive the challenge from a third party depends utterly on how good the claims and specification have been drafted in the first place.

Invalidation of patents, unexpectedly narrow scope of protection, defeat in infringement suit … all such undesired outcome could have been avoided only if the patent application had been better drafted. 

In the case of Japanese patent applications filed by non-Japanese entities, the claims and specification are usually translations from the non-Japanese texts of the first filed foreign applications or PCT applications. 

From this perspective, the translation of the patent claims and specification is actually more than just a translation and is practically tantamount to the preparation of a legal document which serves as a basis for seeking patent protection.  For this reason, the translation should be done with utmost care by IP professionals such as experienced patent attorneys or paralegals

And that is what we do and is not done by most of the IP firms in Japan


Problems related to traditional way of handling patent applications from outside Japan

In typical Japanese IP firms, applications from foreign clients are handled by a team of an IP professional (a patent attorney or a paralegal) and a translator. For example, the translation of a PCT specification for the Japan national phase entry is often carried out by one who is the least experienced in the IP firm or even by an outside translator.

The IP professions work on legal matters based on the translations prepared by translators which are not always so good or of a rather poor quality in many cases. This manner of handling patents is disadvantageous not only from the aspect of efficiency but also from the aspect of cost because poor translations of course make the entire procedure unnecessarily complicated and high translation fees are required even if the translations are not so good. Such inefficient and problematic practice as mentioned above has become customary because many Japanese IP professionals are not good at writing in English or even reading English documents, and the English-to-Japanese translations are generally assigned to beginners.

Consequently, many Japanese IP professionals have to rely on poor translations in their works, thus falling into a vicious cycle. It is not surprising even if patent applications from foreign clients are handled by those who do not fully understand what is disclosed in the original specification nor the clients’ instructions given in English during the prosecution of the application. For years, this has been a serious problem as far as the patent applications from outside Japan are concerned.

Our Solution

Such problems as mentioned above will never happen in the case of Inoue & Associates. Every one of our staff members has gone through very hard training and long actual experience to acquire ability to handle the IP cases alone from drafting patent specifications whether they are in Japanese or English to dealing with various procedures relating to patent applications or registered patents. We do not need and actually do not use any translator. Even in the case of foreign patent applications (in US, EP etc.) filed by Japanese applicants through our firm, the US or European patent attorneys often use our draft documents without any substantial change. That is, the documents drafted by Inoue & Associates as such are often submitted to the USPTO or the EPO.

There is no magic formula for acquiring good IP rights. This can be achieved only by hard work and skill obtainable through long and rich experience as always required in any fields for realizing high quality services.

Inoue & Associates is one of the very limited number of Japanese IP firms capable of constantly offering high quality IP services at a reasonable price. There has been and will be no compromise in the quality of services we provide to our clients and, for this very reason, we have been trusted by many foreign clients as well as domestic clients.

Our skill in IP business is highly esteemed by our clients including two famous Japanese professors emeriti, Dr. Nobuatsu Watanabe and Dr. Hidefumi Hirai, whose recommendations are shown in this web site. Further, if requested, we will be able to show you copies of some letters from various US and EP attorneys praising our abilities.

Our highly-skilled staff members will surely be of great help to your establishment of strong and valuable intellectual property portfolio while reducing cost.

If you are not sure, try us and we promise that we will never fall short of your expectations. You will immediately realize that we are dedicated to efficient acquisition and protection of your valuable intellectual properties and have skills to achieve this goal.


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特に現在の主流であるモノコック構造で車体本体には影響が無いフロントフェンダーの樹脂化 を中心に検討と採用が行われている。 但しコストについては、車両の製造から出荷そしてリサ イクルに至るまでトータルに考える必要がある。例えば製品設計の段階で部品の統合化、組み 立てラインのレイアウト、部品の輸送コスト、設計の複雑さ(設計のデザインによっては鉄の方 がコスト高になり、樹脂を使用すれば設計上の自由度が高い)、車両購入者に対して付加価値と なると思われる損傷性の向上、修理コスト及び車両保険コストの削減などが考えられる。


Especially, the application of a resin as a substitute raw material is considered or has been put into practice mainly in the production of front fenders which have no influence on the strength of automobile bodies having a currently predominant monocoque structure.  However, as far as the production cost is concerned, the entire process form the production and shipment of automobiles through the recycling should be comprehensively taken into consideration.  For example, considerations should be given to: the unification of parts at the design stage; the layout of assembly lines; the transportaion costs for parts; the complexity in design (the use of steel may result in a higher cost depending on the design, while the use of a resin increases freedom of design); and the damage resistance of an automobile, and the reduction in repair cost and physical damage cover, which would be perceived as added values by consumers.











-- 該膜を介して水と塩水とを対向して接触させた際に、測定開始後5日目の水/塩水の電気伝導度(EC)の差が5.5dS/m以下の膜である --


-- the film is one showing a difference in the electric conductivity (EC) in a water/saline solution system at the time of five days after the start of measurement is 5.5 dS/m or less, when the water and saline solution in the system are brought into contact through the film so that the water and saline solution face each other through the film. --




問題点(1) : 測定対象特性の不明確さ

“difference in the electric conductivity”が、何処と何処で測定された電気伝導度(EC)の差なのかが不明確である。

問題点(2) : 測定操作の不明確さ

”at the time of five days after the start of measurement ・・・ when the water and saline solution in the system are brought into contact through the film ・・・”というように、afterとwhenが組み合わされて使用されているが、測定において、この水と塩水をどのようなタイミングで接触させているのかが分かり難い。

問題点(3) : テクニカルな観点からの不十分な記載





-- the film shows an electrical conductivity (EC) difference of 5.5 dS/m or less as determined by a method comprising contacting water with a saline solution having a salt concentration of 0.5 % by weight through said nonporous hydrophilic film, measuring respective electrical conductivities of the water and the saline solution 5 days after the start of the contact, and calculating the difference in electrical conductivity as between the water and the saline solution. -- (下線は、強調のために付加した)








-- 最後の中間溶体化熱処理とは、全工程中のある工程と別のある工程の中間に複数回施される溶体化熱処理の内で、工程の順序として最後に施される溶体化熱処理をいう --


-- the "final heat treatment for intermediate solution treatment" is the heat treatment for solution treatment which is conducted lastly in order of the steps, among the heat treatments for solution treatment, which are conducted in a plurality of times between one step and another step in the whole process.  --





問題点(1) : タイミングを示す単語の不適切な使用

原文の「最後の中間溶体化熱処理」が、“final heat treatment for intermediate solution treatment”と訳されている。これを逆に日本語に直訳すると「中間の溶体化処理のための最後の加熱処理」となる。

この訳だと“final heat treatment”と“intermediate solution treatment”という2つのtreatmentsの関係が分かり難く、特に、中間の(intermediate)処理のための最後の(final)処理ということになってしまっているため、「中間の」と「最後の」という2つのタイミングの相互関係が非常に分かり難い。

問題点(2) : タイミングを示す用語/表現の不統一

上記(1)にも関連して、原文の「最後の中間溶体化熱処理」における「中間」は、原文にも説明されているとおり「全工程中のある工程と別のある工程の中間に複数回施される」という意味だが、この「・・・中間に複数回施される」の英訳において、“intermediate”という用語を使用せずに、単に“plurality of times between one step and another step”としてしまっている。

そのため“intermediate solution treatment”における“intermediate”が「全工程中のある工程と別のある工程の中間」を意味しているということが分かり難い。

問題点(3) : 関係代名詞の不要な重複使用

 “・・・which is conducted lastly in order of the steps, ・・・which are conducted in a plurality of times”というように2重に関係代名詞が使用されており、それぞれの先行詞が分かり難い。その結果、工程のタイミングが分かり難くなっている。




-- the “final intermediate solution heat treatment” means the solution heat treatment carried out as the final one of a set of solution heat treatments each carried out as an intermediate treatment between two different steps involved in the entire process. --


-- the "final heat treatment for intermediate solution treatment" is the heat treatment for solution treatment which is conducted lastly in order of the steps, among the heat treatments for solution treatment, which are conducted in a plurality of times between one step and another step in the whole process.  --]

溶体化や溶体化熱処理の英語表現として“solution heat treatment”という用語は一般的に使用されています。

一応、上記の弊所案でしたら、“final intermediate solution heat treatment”は、中間溶体化のために数回行われる熱処理の内の最後の熱処理を指しているということが容易に分かると思います。



高品質な技術翻訳(特許出願明細書等)井上アソシエイツ 次へ[レベル3:高品質]


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